The attitude of men towards the women can be seen in explores the spate of betrayal, cheap blackmail, and deceit, and this is seen in the characters of Lamboi, Musa and other people in Yoko’s chiefdom. For instance, for fear of a woman assuming the enviable post in Senehun, Lamboi, that is, Yoko’s blood brother connives with Musa, the seer and medicine man to kill chief Gbanya when it is quite apparent that he might pass the power to his wife. Yoko Lamboi, therefore, instructs Musa to do it and when he refuses. Lamboi threatened to expose Musa’s past dirty secret which has to do with his killing of Yattah’s son and Mama Kidi’s daughter.
The thought of being exposed to the general public propels Musa, therefore, betrays the chief and the entire community because as a seer, he has a priest-like role to play as one who is supposed to protect the land and Gbanya, the chief of Senehun.
However, Musa continues in his wicked ways with his partner in crime, Lamboi. This time, Yoko next plan is not only to make Moyamba ungovernable for Yoko but also to implicate her and turn the people against her. To achieve this, Lamboi connives with Musa to kidnap and kill Ndapi and Jilo’s daughter. And when it is done, both will stir the women and others to rebel against the Queen. The people would be reliably informed that Yoko used her as a sacrifice to acquire more powers so that the Governor will be at her beck and calls and her, reign will be rendered useless and destabilized. This singular act of betrayal contributes to what leads Yoko to commit suicide because she feels betrayed by her own blood brother when she finds out through the divination of Gbeni.
Gbanya is the chief of Senehun and ruler of Mende Chiefdom, husband of Madam Yoko. He assumes the office when it becomes clear that the British people still pilot the affairs of the kingdom. As a peace lover, he endeavors to do everything not to incur the wrath of the Governor, the sole representative of her Imperial Majesty, since they still monitor the activities of the African communities at that time. But could not escape being humiliated by Samuel Rowe, the Governor who orders soldiers to stretch Gbanya out on the ground, thereby humiliating him in the presence of his people in the courtyard.
Also, Gbanya does not know how to keep a promise. He could not keep to the promised he made to Yoko to pass the chiefdom into her hands “Remember you made a promised a long time ago that at the time of your death the chiefdom passes into my hands” Gbanya also reminds her that at the time of meeting that promise, he never knew that war would be ravaging this land because enemies are bent on wiping his people out and if Senehun must survive a man must lead her.
Gbanya dies on the day of the Governor’s visit Lamboi, and Musa conspires to poison him for fear of passing the chiefdom to a mere woman, Yoko. Before then, he foresees his own death long before Rowe’s visit.
The play explores the contrast of tradition and modernity in the wake of early colonialism which is the primary conflict in the play. The tradition in question is the Yoruba customs against a western conception of progress and modernity as represented by the conflict between Baroka and Lakunle for Sidi’s hand in marriage. Lakunle who represents the modern Nigerian man, wears Western clothing, speaks and behaves like an English man, and has been educated in a presumably British school. His supreme desire is to turn llunjunle into a modern paradise like the city of Lagos. He actively despises the traditional customs of his village and the people who pledge support to them. This is best exemplified when Lakunle refuses to pay Sidi’s bride price.
He goes further to call the tradition that demands the payment of bride price “an ignoble customs, infamous, ignominy / sharing our heritage before the world” and “to pay the price would be / to buy a heifer off the market stall / you’d be my chattel, my mere property” This means that Lakunle attributes such act to a mere process of buying and selling of goods and commodities which is contrary to his western idea about marriage. Lakunle’s refusal means that it is much more important to convert Sidi to his way of thinking, views, and ideas into a “modern wife”, than it is to marry her. “In a year or two / You will have machines which will do / without it getting in your eyes” Lakunle intends to transform and change the tradition and roles ascribed to African women which are contrary to his western beliefs and that is why he says, “Sidi, I do not seek a wife / To fetch and carry / To cook and scrub / To bring forth children by the gross; I seek a life-companion”
However, Baroka on the other hand is an ant-modernist and his extreme desire is to preserve the village’s traditional way of life. Lakunle who finds Baroka’s lifestyle and views archaic, also describes how Baroka paid off a surveyor not to construct train tracks through the outskirts of llunjunle, thereby preventing the village from experiencing the modern world. Also, Baroka clearly demonstrates that he does not hate modernity or progress, and he does not want it imposed on him or bend the village’s way of life all in the name of civilization and modernity. Baroka wishes to add Sidi to his many wives which are fully accepted by the custom of the land, while Lakunle dreams of one wife according to the dictate of western culture. According to the tradition, when Baroka dies, Sidi will become the head wife of the new Bale, a position that would make her one of the most powerful women in llunjunle. As soon as she realizes that the idea of modern marriage may make her less powerful with the fewer rights she opts for traditional marriage. In the end, Baroka triumphs in the fight for Sidi’s hand in marriage. This shows African ways of life are still a lot more supreme than the western culture that appears more complex, complicated, and incomprehensible.
The play examines the clash of two distinct cultures that is the conflict between African and European customs or ways of life as it’s Traditional with modernity Baroka who is the proponent of traditional culture tries hard to prevent the advent of western civilization and foreign values into llunjunle as the selfish Baroka bribes the surveyor to divert the railway track away from llunjunle, thereby foiling the intending progress in the village. This clash is also seen when the stranger from Lagos, (Photo Journalist), the seat of western civilization, makes the indigenous culture less attractive as he causes a stir during his visit to llunjunle. The people describe his camera as a “one-eyed box” and his motor car as “the devil’s own horse”. The photographs on the cover page and inside of Lagos Man’s Magazine boosts Sidi's ego and this almost makes her overlook her union with Baroka, for she begins to attract more importance to her growing fame.
Play within play is one of the device commonly employed by playwrights in which the characters of a play perform brief dramatic sketches in the course of the play. In this play, it is used as a form of flashback in “The dance of the lost traveler” to enact the experience of the Lagos visitor. Through the play, the audience gains an insight into the ordeal of the Lagos visitor during his first visit who has problems with his car and has to abandon it to continue his exploration on foot.
The second play is dramatized to illustrate how Baroka bribes the surveyor to divert the railway track from llunjunle.
The third play is called “The dance of virility employed to mock Baroka which involves a combination of music, mime, and movement meant to entertain the characters themselves.
Jimmy attacks Alison both verbally and physically throughout the play since his wife reminds him of everything he despises from the beginning. Jimmy verbally attacks Alison and her family members because he wants her to answer a question about an article in the newspaper but Alison defends that she has not read it yet. He humiliates and attacks Alison and her brother, Nigel.
Contrary to Jimmy, Alison does not give any direct reaction against Jimmy’s aggressive behavior. She prefers to maintain silence. She knows that if she gives any reaction to his attack, he will be triumphant. Alison’s silence and seeming ignorance can also be considered as a weapon in order to save her from Jimmy’s assaults. Jimmy not only attack Alison but also other members of her family and her friends. He calls her parents “Militant, arrogant and full of malice”
He labels her friends “sycophantic phlegmatic and of course, top of the bill pusillanimous.
Jimmy also hates Alison’s mother because she is dedicated to her middle classrooms and her concern about her daughter marrying a man beneath her social status that she even hire a detective to watch Jimmy because he does not trust him. This makes him angry at middle-class value. He therefore calls Alison’s mum “old bitch” and she should be dead.
Consequently, Jimmy’s anger against every member of the play can be attributed to his rough and thorny background and his loss of childhood. Jimmy is frail and insecure because he says he was exposed to death, loneliness and pain at a very early age.
Troy whose income cannot even settle his family’s need is busying dragging the family name on the mire.
So, Troy struggles to fulfill his role as a father to his son and husband to his wife. He does not do much before his demise. The family he ruled with Iron hand or hard-handedness is torn apart, as his son; Cory turns against him and also becomes a rebel. After leveling serious criticism on how Troy tormented his life and dreams for a better future, he vows not to attend his funeral.
Cory laments bitterly, Troy’s adulterous act with Alberta also contributes to Troy’s backwardness and family disintegration. The nature of trust between Rose and Troy is broken here, because Rose has vowed never to have anything to do with Troy, especially when the news about Alberta’s pregnancy for “Troy filters in.
To further demonstrate that Rose is an embodiment of unity and family’s rebirth, she tries to convince Cory not to speak despicably against his dead father and to assure him that Troy means well for the family, “Your daddy wanted you to be everything he wasn’t… and at the same time he tried to make you everything he was… he meant to do more good than he meant to do harm” Rose cautions Cory. Troy also sees Rose as a good woman capable of uniting the family when he says…
Also, Rose forgives Troy and accepts to bring up Raynell, that is, the illegitimate daughter of Troy and Alberta who died shortly after child birth in order to promote peace harmony and family integration in Maxsons.
Gabriel or Gabe is Troy’s brother who is mentally imbalance. He was injured in the Second World War, where he received a head injury that required a metal plate to be surgically implanted into his head. He’s given a cheque from the government, the part which Troy used to buy the Maxson’s home which is the setting of the play. Gabriel provided some comic relief when wanders around the neighborhood carrying a basket and singing. He sees himself as angel Gabriel who opens the gates of heaven with his trumpet for Saint Peter on Judgment Day.
However, just before the play begins, Gabriel has moved out to live with a lady named Miss. Pearl, Troy who is afraid that he will no longer get Gabe’s disability cheque commits him to a mental hospital and continues to receive half of Gabe’s cheque.
To the Magi, the loss of their traditions to impending Christianity is like staring both death and defeat in the face at once. Death doesn't make its real entrance until the end of "Journey of the Magi," but when it finally does sashay onto the scene, it puts all too fine a point on what the coming of Jesus means to the Magi and their people.
The birth of Jesus, the three kings, and Biblical allusions galore. "Journey of the Magi" has religion written all over it, and that's just the obvious stuff. Since the whole poem is about the coming of Christianity, every word is packed with religious meaning that can be picked apart with a fine-toothed comb. Allow Shmoop.
There are two distinct layers of fear in "Journey of the Magi." First, there's the Magus-as-character fear – the kind that's pretty easy to identify by the end of the poem. And then there's the kind of fear that that first kind implies. Now before you go asking yourself what in the world Shmoop's babbling on about, allow us to explain: by making the Magus a character that's super wary of spiritual change, Eliot's secretly telling us about his own fears surrounding his recent religious conversion. After all, Eliot grew up with no real spiritual upbringing, and even though his conversion to Anglicanism was certainly his choice, that doesn't necessarily mean it was an easy one. Which is maybe why fear comes out with guns a-blazin' in this poem.
(iv)TRADITION and CUSTOMS
The "Journey of the Magi" is chock full of traditions being challenged left and right. There's this strange sense of impending doom about the birth of Jesus, and the dawning knowledge that the old way of life for these Magi is long gone. You'd think that a poem about the birth of Jesus would be all kinds of happy about ushering in a new era of religious exaltation, but mostly this poem is moping about a long-dead past. Hey, it's Eliot. His glass was almost always half-empty. If not shattered altogether.
As journey's go, the "Journey of the Magi" really blows. It begins and ends with suffering, and the Magi suffer a whole lot during the journey, too, what with all the bad weather and even worse people. But there's a bigger suffering going on here, too. There's the psychological suffering of the dying culture of the Magi, plus the physical and mental anguish we know this kid, Jesus, will experience as he grows up to become Christ. So what do we make of all this? We think Eliot's reminding us that a whole lot about spirituality and religion revolves around suffering, and that suffering often comes with religious transformation.
LITERATURE IN ENGLISH
Lawyer Nweze courts the attentions of Beneatha. In trying to win her affections, he is persistent but never overbearing. He flatters her with gifts (something that George Murchison has not done); in addition, Asagai’s gifts are not meaningless trinkets but are things that are both useful to and desired by Beneatha — such as the Nigerian robes he clearly has gone to a lot of trouble to obtain. Asagai’s compliments to Beneatha are sincere and therefore believable. His peaceful ways and calm manner give Beneatha an appreciation of his views even when they disagree. Contrasted with George Murchison’s abrasive put-downs of Beneatha and George’s insistence on retaining his narrow-minded views, Asagai appears as Beneatha’s savior from the potential tragedy of her eventually becoming George’s wife. In other words Asagai is helpful and concerned about the welfare of others. He volunteers to assist in the move to Clybourne Park and offers much-needed consolation and good advice to Beneatha when she is at her lowest. He counsels Beneatha spiritually and emotionally, helping her to get back “on track” as she rails against her brother’s foolishness in having lost the money.
He was used in the play to make a radical point about race
In Second-Class Citizen, Adah and Francis are alike in that at the beginning of the novel, they are both poor students. In nearly every other way, however, they are opposites, for Adah is strong and determined to make a better life and takes active steps toward doing so while Francis denies his responsibilities and is weak, lazy, controlling, and abusive.
When Adah and Francis marry, both of them are students, and both of them are poor. Francis cannot even pay Adah's bride price, yet she chooses him anyway, hoping to have some stability in her life so she can continue her education.
However, Adah and Francis turn out to be two completely different people with different goals and personalities. Adah is a strong woman with deep and lasting dreams and a determination to achieve them at all costs. She struggles greatly, but she keeps on going, working and caring for her children the best she can. She tries to make her life better, finding jobs she enjoys and pursuing her writing. Adah tends to be both optimistic and realistic. While she hopes her life will get better, she takes active steps to make it do so.
Francis is just the opposite of Adah. He is weak and lazy. Instead of valuing the educational opportunities, he has been given, he fails his exams. Then he blames Adah for his failures. When he has to go to work, Francis complains mightily, accusing Adah of being lazy even when she is recovering from giving birth. Francis is also controlling and abusive. Even though Adah earns most of the family's money, Francis considers it his. He also beats Adah physically and attacks her emotionally. He burns his wife's manuscript, too, out of spite and jealousy.
In the end, Francis refuses to even take responsibility for his children. He denies that they are his and burns the paperwork that proves they are.
MASSA IS BURIED to the poet in the above poet, the summer has many defects unlike his beloved. In other words proceeds to outline the ways in which she actually exceeds it. First, he says that a summer day is actually not as lovely or temperate as she is. Sometimes “Rough winds shake the darling buds” and “summer’s lease hath all too short a date”; in other words, summer can be somewhat extreme, even volatile, and it does not last very long because it eventually gives way to autumn. Further, sometimes summer can be “too hot” and then, other times, the sun goes away for a long time (when “his gold complexion” is “dimm’d”). Furthermore, nature’s beauty has a way of “declin[ing]” as time passes. The speaker’s love, on the other hand, lives in an “eternal summer” because her beauty will never die; he has immortalized her and her beauty in these lines, and so she is better than literal summer. Hence the defects of the summer is day makes it impossible to be compared to the poet beloved.
Ras represent the white man perceptions and treatments of blacks using poet.
The poet use of rhetorical question beginning from In stanza 2, the poet laments further that if Africans ”Cry roughly” of their torments which started from the colonial times which he refers to as, ”… the start of things”, he wonders who will watch their ”large mouths” when they yell for help.
In stanza 3, the poet continues to lament that nobody will be emotional(represented by ‘heart’) enough to listen to their ‘clamouring’ and if by chance, they realize their predicament and grow angry, nobody will hear them as he terms any late realisation and anger as, ‘pitiful’. In stanza 4 & 5, the poet supports the reoccurring belief that the dead serve as ancestors and protect the living from evil forces. In these stanzas,the poet wonders that when the living dies (our dead) and meet the ancestors (their dead) whose advice has fallen on deaf ears and whose ‘wild appeals’ have been ignored, they (the living, now dead) would remember their warnings and regret not ever listening. The poet continues that they (the ancestors) left their signs on earth, water and air for their ”blind, deaf and unworthy sons” who see ‘nothing’ they have made. In stanza 6, the poet continues that since the Africans did not heed the advice of their ancestors, he wonders who will hear their ‘sobbing hearts’ when they ‘weep gently’.
The central theme of Wuthering Heights by Emily Brontë is the relationship between Cathy and Heathcliff. The problem of the bond between Cathy and Heathcliff and its significance remains the central mystery of the novel till the very end. In fact, the novel is a revengeful love story of Heathcliff, the protagonist.
Catherine is the daughter of Mr & Mrs. Earnshaw and Heathcliff is a pickup boy by Mr. Earnshaw from the slums of Liverpool city and is named Heathcliff Earnshaw by Mr. Earnshaw. Mr. Earnshaw’s treatment towards Heathcliff is likely a father’s treatment towards his own child. Environment of the moor and same dwelling place gives both Cathy and Heathcliff a greater chance to develop their romantic love-affair. In addition, Cathy’s own brother, Hindley’s hostile and cruel treatments towards Heathliff fines Cathy’s love for Heathliff.
As children, Cathy and Heathcliff seem to represent the spirit of Freedom as they are rebelling against the tyrannical authority represented by Hindley. They are also rebelling against religious bigotry as represented by Joseph.
Their love exists on a higher or spiritual plane; they are soul mates, two people who have an affinity for each other which draws them together irresistibly. Heathcliff repeatedly calls Catherine his soul.
A life-force relationship is a principle that is not conditioned by anything but it. Catherine and Heathcliff's love is based on their shared perception that they are the same. Catherine declares, famously, “I am Heathcliff,” while Heathcliff, upon Catherine's death, wails that he cannot live without his “soul,” meaning Catherine.
Both Cathy and Heathcliff love each other profoundly. Yet we notice some ambiguity in both Cathy’s speech and action.
Cathy and Heathcliff are creatures of the wild moorland where conventional social standards are meaningless. After meeting with Edgar, Cathy develops an interest towards him. She now seems to be equally interested in Edgar and Heathcliff. She has not certainly given up Heathcliff. In fact she defines her brother Hindley and manages to meet Heathcliff secretly. Indeed there remains a striking contrast between Edgar and Heathcliff far as behavior, looks and refinement is concerned. And it is obvious for a sweet girl of fifteen to be in dilemma about both of them because one is her earlier love and later another appears with more redefined and behavior.
Cathy decides to marry Edgar for his social status. She decides to marry Edgar for his social standards. Indeed he is handsome, young and cheerful. But she informs Nelly, the house keeper, of her profound attachment to Heathcliff, saying
“Nelly he (Heathcliff) is more myself than I am. Whatever our sols are made of, his ad mine are the same.”
But Heathcliff who loves Cathy more than anything in his life overhears Cathy saying to Nelley:-
“It would degrade me to marry Heathcliff, now.”’
He would not hear further as he leaves with his heart which is teared up into several pieces and blood is blowing from his hear inwardly. From this context of Cathy’s speech we can have a clear notion that the love affair between Cathy and Heathliff is anti-social as Heathcliff is a pick up boy and then is no trait of his parents.
After overhearing such stuff, Heathcliff leaves the Wuthering Heights without saying anything to anybody and leaves no traces of him.
When Heathcliff has left, Cathy marries Edgar. After her marriages she understands her betrayal of her true self and as a result she is going to be sick and ill in accordance with the passing of days. After six months of their marriages, Heathcliff returns and seeing him live Cathy feels so delighted. Inspite of Edgars dismay, Cathy and Heathcliff sit looking at one another “absorbed in their mutual joy to suffer embarrassment.” Yet there is no romantic erotic infatuation.
Though she is married to Edgar, she fwhichan ardent love and desire for Heathcliff which is anti- social. She believes that Linton is subordinate and that Heathcliff is part of her.
In Chapter 15, Heathcliff himself burst into Cathy’s room and in a moment she was in his arms. He begins to show countless kisses on her. Then Cathy confesses that she is responsible for everything because she has married Edgar when she has actually been in love with him (Heathcliff). She then asks him to kiss her again.
Twelve years have passed after Cathy’s death. Heathcliff suffers a lot and at the same time make others to suffer.
When Edgar Linton dies and the designs of Linton’s grave is going on Heathcliff bribes the Sexton to remove the earth of the lid of the coffin in which Cathy lay. And opening the lid of the coffin and has seen Cathy’s face again. In fact, he has, with his own hands, digs out her grave on this occasion. This he has done out of his titanic love for Cathy. But in view of social perspective, what he has done for love is really amoral.
Not only that he has also bribed the Sexton to pull away one panel of the coffin, his object being, that when he himself dies, his dead body should be buried close to Cathy’s dead body without being there any wall between them. His unfathomable love for Cathy makes him do such thing that is anti-moral.
At the end, we can say that the unalloyed love of Heathcliff turns to anti-moral as well as anti-social because of Cathy’s ambition to get social standard and his own psychological problem.
In Wuthering Heights Catherine and Heathcliff’s love is a direct challenge to those social forces of family and class which tyrannize, oppress and restrict individuals and their relationship.
In the novel Wuthering Heights by Emily Bronte, Cathy Linton and Hareton Earnshaw are part of the second generation of residents at Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange.
Cathy's mother is Catherine Earnshaw. Hareton's father is Hindley Earnshaw.
Catherine and Hindley Earnshaw are siblings that first lived at Wuthering Heights with their parents.
Cathy Linton is the daughter of Catherine and Edgar Linton. Hareton Earnshaw is the son of Hindley Earnshaw and Isabella Linton. Hareton has been raised by Heathcliff and treated as a servant since his father died. Heathcliff also has a son, Linton, who has lived with him since Linton's mother, Isabella, who is also Edgar's sister, passed away.
Cathy is first introduced to Hareton when she travels to Wuthering Heights to visit her cousin, Linton. When she sees Hareton, she assumes he is a stable boy and begins to order him around.
Cathy and Hareton have fallen in love at the end of Wuthering Heights. Their relationship mirrors almost identically the love Catherine Earnshaw and Heathcliff once shared.
Cathy and Hareton have developed a strong, loving relationship, and will undoubtedly soon be married.
Although Cathy has long scorned Hareton, she finally relents, making overtures of friendship and offering to teach him to read. Hareton, indignant that she blames their past enmity on him, at first rebuffs her, but he soon softens, and the cousins establish an amiable truce which quickly develops into something deeper.
The two overcome their biggest obstacle when Hareton forbids Cathy to speak ill of Heathcliff, and Cathy, with a growing maturity based on love, decides it would only be cruel to persist in trying to make Hareton see that Heathcliff has treated him abominably, realizing that "he was attached by ties stronger than reason could break".
As she watches Hareton and Cathy huddle like innocent, happy children over a book in Chapter 32, Nelly relates that their "intimacy thus commenced grew rapidly...both minds tending to the same point - one loving and desiring to esteem, and the other loving and desiring to be esteemed - they contrived in the end to reach it". She sees their eventual union as inevitable, calling it will be "the crown of all my wishes