(i) Simple Bar Chart is easy to draw and its fairly accurate. *WHILE* Compound Bar Chart are used to compare statistical data concerned with two different units showing how one is affected by the other.
Simple Bar Chart is used when the data given or involved are made up on only one item or component. *WHILE* A Component Bar Chart is used when the data involved are of two variables.
*Use any (1)*
(6a). An intrusive volcanic activity is the various ways by which molten rocks and gases from below the earth's crust are forced into cracks and joints within the earth crust where they solidify
6b.*The characteristics of block mountains are as follows*—
(a) When the earth's crust between two fault lines is forced to rise up (due to horizontal pressure from either side) it forms a block mountain or horst. The lowlying parts on either side are called rift valleys or graben. For example, the Satpura range is a horst and the rivers Narmada and Tapi flow along the rift valleys on either side.
(b) When the part of the earth's crust subsides along two faults lines, due to divergent forces, a rift valley or garben is formed. For example, the river Rhine in Germany flows along such a rift valley and the Black Forest and Vosges represent the block mountains or horst on either side of it.
(c) Block mountains have steep slopes and flattened tops.
(d) The height and extent of block mountains are moderate and these mountains are devoid of peaks.
(6c.) *Pick any three*
stocks, laccoliths, sills, and dikes
[Pick any three]
(ii) Biological factors or living organisms
(iv) Parent Materials
[Pick any two]
(i) Loss of life
(ii) Destruction of infrastructure
(iii) Damage to land
(iv) Loss of natural resources
Exfoliation is a process in which large flat or curved sheets of rock fracture and are detached from the outcrop due to pressure release: As erosion removes the overburden from a rock that formed at high pressure deep in the Earth´s crust, it allows the rock to expand, thus resulting in cracks and fractures along sheet ...
Frost action is the repeated cycle of ice formation and ice melt in the pore spaces and fractures of rocks causing disintegration of the rock. When water in rock pores freezes, its volume increases by about 10%. This can create a significant amount of pressure on rocks.
An ecosystem is a geographic area where plants, animals, and other organisms, as well as weather and landscape, work together to form a bubble of life. Ecosystems contain biotic or living, parts, as well as abiotic factors, or nonliving parts. Biotic factors include plants, animals, and other organisms.
i. *Biotic components:* are the living things that have a direct or indirect influence on other organisms in an environment. For example plants, animals, and microorganisms and their waste materials.
ii. *Abiotic components:* This includes all chemical and physical elements i.e. non-living components. Abiotic components can vary from region to region, from one ecosystem to another. They mainly take up the role of life supporter. They determine and restrict the population growth, number, and diversity of biotic factors in an ecosystem. Hence, they are called limiting factors.
(1b) (PICK ANY FIVE) (i) To supply raw materials to other parts of the country e.g East African railway. (ii) To link important cities and facilitate movement of people e.g. Abidjan Ouagadougou. (iii) To link different regions, thus, promoting inter-regional trade e.g. North and South of Nigeria. (iv) To open up new areas for major crop production e.g Jos- Maiduguri (v)To tap resources such as agricultural,mineral and forest. For example , rail network such as Minna,Laura Namoda rail network (vi) For the purpose of administration. (vii) For postal services.
(1c) (PICK ANY FOUR) (i)Deliberate effort should be made towards the expansion of the Raul network ,inorder to generate growth in the economy. Effort should be geared towards improvement of the efficiency of the rail network
(ii) Government should make capital available to railway authorities to enhance efficiency. Training and retraining of personnel should be undertaken from time to time
(iii) Development of international rail transport system should be embarked upon to spur international trade. There should be improved management techniques: new innovations in management should be encouraged.
(iv)Adoption of standard gauges is very important , so as to enhance operational efficiency.Also There should be Faster engines and coaches to facilitate east and quick movement.
(v)There should be embarkment to check steep gradients, uniform gauges should be adopted, double tracks should be constructed and There should also be improved communication system.
(2a) Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban areas, the corresponding decrease in the proportion of people living in rural areas, and the ways in which societies adapt to this change. WHILE Population density is a measurement of population per unit area, or exceptionally unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density. It is frequently applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans. It is a key geographical term.
(2b) (i) High population density: This problem of high population density is caused due to the heavy rate of migration from rural areas. The rapid population growth has led to an acute shortage of dwelling units which resulted to; overcrowding, traffic congestion, pollution, housing shortages, high rents, poor urban living conditions, low infrastructure services, poverty, unemployment, and poor sanitation which has become pervasive and indeed high crime rate.
(ii) Inadequate infrastructures: One major serious aspect of the urban problem is the poor state of the infrastructures. Some developing countries are still faced with bad road network, lack of power supply, inadequate water supply and some basic amenities.
(iii) Lack of affordable housing: This has led to confrontations with well organized squatters, who take over unoccupied buildings to live rent- free or prevent demolitions. Which has brought about, lack of housing vacancy rate, due to the rapid job growth and housing costs that has increased.
(iv) Flooding: Flooding is a very serious problem faced in urban areas, especially in developing countries, during the rainy seasons. The drainage is poorly constructed leading to difficulty in accessing the roads due to the flood leading to the flood disaster in some developing countries.
(2c) (i) Building Sustainable and Environmentally-friendly Cities: Governments should pass laws that plan and provide environmentally sound cities and smart growth techniques, considering that people should not reside in unsafe and polluted areas.
(ii) Provision of Essential Services: Urban stakeholders must ensure all populations within the urban areas have access to adequate essential social services namely education, health, sanitation and clean water, technology, electricity, and food.
(iii) Creation of More Jobs: To lessen the negative effects of rapid urbanization while at the same time conserving natural ecosystems, private investments should be encouraged so as to utilize natural resources and create more job opportunities.
(iv) Population Control: Key stakeholders in urban areas must provide campaigns and counseling for effective medical health clinics and family planning to help reduce the high rates of population growth.
(3a) - It requires a specially built factory. - It is mainly hereditry. - It requires a large labour force.
3a) 1. Low level technology 2. Produce craft and cherished works of art 3. Bought as presents and souvenirs by tourists 4. Uses local raw materials 5. Small sized establishment and 6. Until recently, non-electrical powered.
(3b) (i) The Local Craft industries are often affected by lack of raw materials which hinders the production. (ii) Poor patronage from the indigenes as a result of poor finishing and low purchasing power. (iii) Lack of modern equipment to reduce the physical human labour in order to increase production. (iv) Problem of transportation to bring the finished products from where that are produced in the interior to the markets in the urban centers.
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i)High level of technology: The increase for high volume of trade between developing and advanced countries is due to the high level of technology in the latter.
(ii)High level of savings: The high level of savings in developed countries makes production cheaper; hence they can easily export their products to developing countries.
(iii)Colonial ties: The inclination of some developing countries to their colonial masters has helped to increase the volume of trade between the nations.
(iv)Differences in import duties: There are higher differences in import duties imposed on imported goods in both countries.
(v)Differences in prices of goods: There are higher differences in prices of goods produced by both countries in order to earn foreign exchange. Foreign goods are cheaper than local ones.
(vi)Preference for imported goods: Developing countries like Nigeria has preference for goods produced by advanced countries; hence, the high volume of trades
(5b) - It is mainly practiced by peasant farmers or poor farmers. - It involves the use of crude implements like cutlass and hoe - The family is the main sources of labor input to the farm - It is common in rural areas with abundant farmlands - Productivity per unit of land or per unit of labor is low
(5c) - It destroys valuable Forest resources like timber - It leads to land defragmentation due to increase in population - It does not lead to mechanization of farms - It leads to soil erosion when soil is exhausted
(i) High pressure on social amenities: As a result of large number of people living in Lagos owing to development, social amenities like electricity, roads are over demanded
(ii) Housing problem: There are shortages of housing compare to the large number of people living over there
(iii) High cost of food/High cost of living: There are high cost of food because food supply are usually lower compare to the large number of people